The chemical mixing process is same as the cold lime soda process, but steam is applied in mixture tank. The hot lime soda process water softener systems are exclusively used for boiler purpose. EAMCET 2001: The process used for the removal of hardness of water is (A) Calgon (B) Baeyer (C) Serpeck (D) Hoope. Graying is caused by re-deposition of soiling from the wash liquor. Removal of hardness by boiling and ion exchange. The natural zeolite that is used for water softening is gluconites or greensand. Stay connected with Kullabs. Its composition resembles Na2Al2SiO8 or Na2Z, where, Z stands for Zeolite = Al2SiO8. Results showed the efficiency of 95.6% for electrocoagulation technique in hardness removal. Ca (HCO 3) 2 + Ca (OH) 2 → 2CaCO 3 + 2H 2 O. This elimination takes place according to the following reactions: However, this process does not allow us to reduce M-alk. sodium carbonate; permanent hardness of water; potassium carbonate; none of these; Answer : 2. Water hardness is composed of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg). The temporary hardness of water can be removed by treating it with lime water. Principles of Zeolite Softening. In this process it is possible to remove magnesium water hardness … Slaked lime water of process removing hardness of water called Clark's process. Ion exchange is the process through which ions in a solution are transformed into a solid which release ions of a different type but of the same polarity. Completing the CAPTCHA proves you are a human and gives you temporary access to the web property. Soluble salts of calcium and magnesium change into insoluble salts due to the treatment with sodium carbonate (washing soda). Your IP: 89.144.26.146 common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society. The process used for the removal of hardness of water is . Take a sample volume of 20ml (V ml). Removal of Oil: Water softening, the process of removing the dissolved calcium and magnesium salts that cause hardness in water. Saltwater is desalinated to produce water suitable for human consumption or irrigation.The by-product of the desalination process is brine. Thus the builder must exhibit high capacity for selective removal of these ions from water. Cloudflare Ray ID: 6010a749ee18c2b3 The process involves treating water with ammonia or ammonium sulphate. Hence zeolite is used to removes the hardness of the water because the zeolite contains Sodium (Na) and Aluminium (Al) which makes the water soft in nature. Water that forms an immediate lather with soap is called soft water. Soft water also extends the lifetime of plumbing by reducing or eliminating scale build-up in pipes and fittings. Water is an essential element in any laundry and the quality of water used in the laundry process can have a direct effect on the appearance and wear life of clothing and textiles. Furthermore, the limiting current was systematically investigated and the impacts of different applied currents, water flow rates, and ratios of cationic and anionic exchange resins on the … What is the  temporary hardness of water? large scale is practically unfeasible. Tiny beads (containing sodium) in the resin bed attract the hard water minerals, removing them from the water and onto the resin bed. The temporary hardness of water can be removed by treating it with lime water. These insoluble carbonates are removed by filtration and the water is rendered soft. Calcium Chloride + Sodium Carbonate → Calcium Carbonate + Sodium ChlorideCaCl2 + Na2CO3 → CaCO3 + 2NaCl, Magnesium Sulphate + Sodium Carbonate → Magnesium Carbonate + Sodium SulphateMgSO4 + Na2CO3 → MgCO3 + Na2SO4. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficiency of this technique in removal of water hardness under different conditions. Soluble salts of calcium and magnesium change into insoluble salts due to the treatment with sodium carbonate (washing soda). NCERT DC Pandey Sunil Batra HC Verma Pradeep Errorless. 9. The process used for the removal of hardness of water is (a) Calgon (b) Baeyer (c) Serpeck (d) Hoope This technology is used in residential, commercial and industrial settings. Slaked lime converts bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium into carbonates which removetemporary hardness of water. Check Answer and Solution for above Chemistry question - Tardigrade The source water has high Ca and Mg hardness. Hardness in water. to below 3 or 4 °F in the best cases. High Mg hardness requires excess lime to increase pH to 12-13 so that reaction kinetics is fast (super saturated solution). Through the softening process, sodium is added to water at a rate of about 8 mg/L for each grain per gallon (gpg) of hardness. On heating temporary hard water, the soluble salts like calcium bicarbonate and magnesium bicarbonate get changed into insoluble carbonate salts and these settle down to the bottom of the container and can be filter away. NCERT P Bahadur IIT-JEE Previous Year Narendra Awasthi MS Chauhan. Using lime for softening causes an increase in permanent water hardness. Water is an essential element in any laundry and the quality of water used in the laundry process can have a direct effect on the appearance and wear life of clothing and textiles. ... Zeolite used in zeolite softening process for the treatment of hard water gets exhausted after certain time of usage but can be regenerated by flushing it with. It is thus indispensable in many industries and is common in homes with hard water. How permanent hardness of water be removed by washing soda? The temporary hardness of water is thehardness of thewater which is caused due to the presence of soluble bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium which can be removed by boiling. softening process which remains the most commonly used technique for managing hard water in residential settings. Salts like calcium bicarbonate and magnesium bicarbonate when dissolved in water causes temporary hardness. ii. Tiny beads (containing sodium) in the resin bed attract the hard water minerals, removing them from the water and onto the resin bed. ... .most of the calcium carbonate settles down. One … Such water does not have dissolved salts of calcium, magnesium and iron. These are used as ion exchanger and odor removal in water softener. It is also inexpensive and easy to use. It is … • Desalination is a process that takes away mineral components from saline water.More generally, desalination refers to the removal of salts and minerals from a target substance, as in soil desalination, which is an issue for agriculture. There is no non-carbonate hardness. First, precipitation method which use chemical (lime and soda) in its process. Lime-Soda Process: In this method lime [Ca(OH) 2] and sodium carbonate [Na 2 CO 3] (or soda ash) are used to remove permanent hardness from water. An additional merit of this process was that hardness ions, such as Ca 2+ and Mg 2+, were also simultaneously removed from the dilute compartment and recovered in concentrate compartment. Physics. Question 11 : The water being used in dairy industry should contain not more than. Temporary hardness present in the water can be removed by heating hard water and treating it with lime water. A large release of moisture and volatile matters was seen concurrent with the weight loss and endothermic reactions in the TG value as show in Figure 3(b). As a result precipitation becomes almost complete very quickly. Ozonisation: Ozonisation is another method to improve the taste of water. These minerals are naturally occurring with Sodium polyacrylate due to certain soil and rock formations that the water source is in contact with it. Types of Hardness: Depending upon the behavior of water towards soap, hardness is divided into two types. Water … Water hardness is measured in grains per gallon (gpg) and in part per million (ppm) or milligrams per liter (mg/L). Permanent hardness present in the water can be removed by treating it with soda water and using permutit process. Softeners may also remove as much as 5-10 ppm (parts per Zeolites are two types natural and synthetic or artificial. the process used for the removal of hardness of water is - 2.1k LIKES. This process is now obsolete but was very useful for the treatment of large volumes of hard water. Tests on scale deposits in a kettle. Treatment Process # 6. From this it can be deduced that synthesized zeolite from Ethiopian kaolin by the hydrothermal method can be used for water hardness removal. 3. (c) Removal of Permanent Hardness by the Base-Exchange Process: Base exchange process’ is a chemical method by which, softening of permanent hardness in water can be done on a large scale or for household purposes. Ion exchange soften system- replacement of calcium and magnesium by sodium ions. The process used for the removal of hardness of water is . 1. For the washing process to proceed effectively, it is important to remove the hardness ions in the water and replace them with sodium ions, rendering softness to the water. for the removal of Ca. This paper addresses a study on the performance of the electrolysis process applied “per se” and with alkaline chemical dosing for removal of noncarbonated hardness for industrial use. Lime-Soda Water Softening Process: Soda lime is a process used in water treatment to remove Hardness from water. 02:51 Method of Removing Permanent Hardness Lime Soda Process Base Exchange Process or Zeolite Process ... Water hardness removal in cheap way - … Hardness of Water DEFINITION:“ The property of water to form an insoluble curd with soap instead of lather. If you are on a personal connection, like at home, you can run an anti-virus scan on your device to make sure it is not infected with malware. Salts like calcium bicarbonate and magnesium bicarbonate, when dissolved in water causes temporary hardness. Reaction: Ca(OH) 2 + Ca(HCO 3) 2 → 2CaCO 3 ↓ + 2H 2 O. How can slake lime can remove temporary hardness? 2. Calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) ions that cause water hardness can be removed fairly easily by using an ion exchange procedure. Add your answer and earn points. Temporary hardness present in the water can be removed by using the following methods: -. After treatment, water that was 10 gpg of hardness will have about 80 mg/L of sodium. Question 10 : Calgon is used for removal of. Ca(HCO 3) 2 ———-> CaCO 3 ↓ + CO 2 + H 2 O. Mg(HCO 3) 2 ———–> MgCO 3 ↓ + CO 2 + H 2 O. Calgon is a trade name of a complex salt, sodium hexametaphosphate ( N a P O 3 ) 6 . 3. It is used for softening hard water. Occupation, Business & Technology Education, Mechanical Advantage, Velocity Ratio and Efficiency, Types of Thermometer According to Construction, House Wiring System and Some Electrical Devices, Valency, Molecular Formula and Chemical Reaction, Electronic Configuration and Atomic Structure, Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Bicarbonate and Glycerol, Function, Dispersion and Germination of Seed, Interrelationship Between Cell, Tissue and Organs in Human Body, Environmental Degradation and its Conservation, Preventive Measure of Landslide and Flood, Agencies Involved in Environmental Conservation, Fire and Epidemics Minimization and Management. These minerals are naturally occurring due to certain soil and rock formations that the water source is in contact with. In due course, however, the permutit is exhausted or losses its capacity of reacting with these salts by having given up all its sodium ions. This publication will mainly discuss how water softeners work due to the process of ion exchange. Write chemical equation involved 1 See answer Avni9810 is waiting for your help. Permanent hardness cannot be removed by heating only. To reduce or eliminate hardness from the water, there are various processes that can be utilized. This process “softens” hard water by substituting the hardness minerals (calcium and magnesium) with sodium chloride (salt). An efficient, easy-to-operate hardness removal process with reduced sodium in both the treated water and in the spent regenerant is an unmet global need. After filteration water allowed to enter into Activated carbon filter for absorbing dissolved carbondioxide. Standard water softeners are cation exchange devices. While heating, soluble salts of calcium and magnesium (bicarbonates) change into insoluble salts. Permanent hardness present in the water can be removed by treating it with soda water and using permutit process. Types of HardnessA. What is slaked lime process of removing hardness of water called? Depth of treatment. Dilute 20ml of the sample in Erlenmeyer flask to 40ml by adding 20ml of distilled water. The water used in experiments was the tap water of the reticulation system of Campina Grande in Paraiba state, Brazil. Sixty to 120 minutes generally are required for the brine to pass through the unit and flush the tank before soft water is available again. This means that for every liter (0.26 gallon) of water intake, there would be 80 mg of sodium intake. Among all common water filtration methods, the process used for removal of all dissolved salts from water is referred to as deionization. Health Risks Associated With Softened Water. The chemical equations are as follows: Calcium Bicarbonate + Calcium Hydroxide → Calcium Carbonate + Water. Permutit is the trade name for an artificially prepared sodium zeolite or sodium aluminium orthosilicate obtained by fusing together sodium carbonate silica and alumina. Please mark me as brainliest. The chemical equations are as follows: Calcium Bicarbonate + Calcium Hydroxide → Calcium Carbonate + WaterCa(HCO3)2 + Ca(OH)2 → 2CaCO3 + 2H2O, Magnesium Bicarbonate + Calcium Hydroxide → Calcium Carbonate + Magnesium Carbonate + WaterMg(HCO3)2 + Ca(OH)2 → CaCO3 + MgCO3 + 2H2O. How can boiling water remove temporary hardness? If the removal of water hardness is not successful it can lead to “graying” in processed textiles and the increased use of chemicals. For large-scale municipal operations, a process known as the "lime-soda process" is used to remove Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ from the water supply. Causes of temporary and permenant hardness. It is used to separate water from synthetic surface-active substances, but it is effective against pesticides, which are stable and strong oxidants. Water Hardness: Water hardness is due to high concentrations of calcium and magnesium carbonates. Lime-Soda Water Softening Process: Soda lime is a process used in water treatment to remove Hardness from water. How to Remove Permanent Hardness of Water? Cation exchange involves the replacement of the hardness ions with a nonhardness ion. Add 1 mL of ammonia buffer to bring the pH to 10±0.1. Community smaller than society. Desalination is used on … Environmental chemistry: water. Permutit is the synthetic zeolite that is most used in water softening and its chemical formula is Na 2 O, Al 2 O 3, nSiO 2, xH 2 O. 2) Excess lime process i. Hardness of water 1. • Procedure for calculation of hardness of water by EDTA titration. Ion-exchange reactions, similar to those you performed in this experiment, which result in the formation of an insoluble precipitate, are the basis of this process. Permanent hardness can be removed by the addition of washing soda commonly known as sodium carbonate. For every grain of hardness removed from water, 8 mg/1 (ppm) of sodium is added. Here’s a quick overview of the process: The hard water enters the water softener. Example: Ca (HCO3)2 →CaCO3 + CO2+ H2O. An additional merit of this process was that hardness ions, such as Ca 2+ and Mg 2+, were also simultaneously removed from the dilute compartment and recovered in concentrate compartment. Social and Applied Aspects. During the softening process, sodium is released from the exchange media into the output water. Permanent hardness of water can be removed by the following methods: Method # 1. The resulting calcium and magnesium chlorides are washed out and the regenerated permutit is used over again. The process of the removal of suspended particles by gravitational settling is called … Permanent hardness of water can be a removed by the following ways: (a) By the use of soda: Soda removes both temporary and permanent hardness. In other words, alkalinity is enough for the removal of Ca and Mg hardness. Here’s a quick overview of the process: The hard water enters the water softener. 1. This process “softens” hard water by substituting the hardness minerals (calcium and magnesium) with sodium chloride (salt). Solution (By Examveda Team) Temporary hardness can be removed by boiling or by addition of Ca (OH) 2. 2. phosphate dosing- small amount of phosphate is added to inhibit deposition of carbonate. Determination of Total hardness Repeat the above titration method for sample hard water instead of standard hard water. Calcium Chloride + Sodium Carbonate → Calcium Carbonate + Sodium Chloride CaCl2 + Na2CO3 → CaCO3 + 2NaCl, Magnesium Sulphate + Sodium Carbonate → Magnesium Carbonate + Sodium Sulphate MgSO4 + Na2CO3 → MgCO3 + Na2SO4. Removal of permanent hardness is carried out cold with sodium carbonate which may or may not be combined with calcium and magnesium bicarbonate precipitation using lime. Books. The most common is the use of water softeners which exchange the calcium and magnesium for sodium. Performance & security by Cloudflare, Please complete the security check to access. In my knowledge, there are 2 usual methods of water softening. Add 1 mL of ammonia buffer to bring the pH to 10±0.1. On the other hand, great amount of produced sludge causes clogging of filters and water distribution systems. You may need to download version 2.0 now from the Chrome Web Store. This can be regenerated by soaking in a 10% solution of common salt when the reverse change takes place and calcium and magnesium ions pass into solution and sodium zeolite is formed again. There can be more than one community in a society. Sedimentation. Calgon process is used for the removal of hardness of water. Water softening is the removal of calcium, magnesium, and certain other metal cations in hard water.The resulting soft water requires less soap for the same cleaning effort, as soap is not wasted bonding with calcium ions. iii. It possesses the higher quality of reactivity with calcium and magnesium ions forming insoluble calcium or magnesium zeolites. Soluble salts of calcium and magnesium are turned to insoluble salts by the following methods. Please enable Cookies and reload the page. Add 1 or 2 drops of the indicator solution. It is the most popular and effective means of softening hard water. Removal of these salts from the solution makes the water soft. One area in which it has been highly effective has been in the treatment of water for the removal of hardness minerals and certain other contaminants. In other words it is the soap destroying property due to the presence of Bicarbonates, Sulphates and Chlorides of Calcium and Magnesium.” 2. Zeolite is made up of micro-porous minerals which have the capacity of exchanging ions. Hope u liked my answer. If you are at an office or shared network, you can ask the network administrator to run a scan across the network looking for misconfigured or infected devices. a) By boiling: When temporary hard water is boiled, bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium decompose to form insoluble calcium and magnesium carbonate. water softening and hardness removal 1. water softening removal of hardness of water permanent hardness temporary hardness permissible limit 75 to 115 mg/l by-krishna murari 2. methods of removal of temporary hardness 1 boiling : magnesium bicabonate and magnesium carbonate cannot be removed. 3 ml exchange media into the output water community in a society and fittings hardness Take 100 ml sample. Methods: method # 1 Describe Clark 's method to removal of all dissolved salts from the Chrome Store! Mg hardness requires excess lime to increase pH to 10±0.1 in 250 ml beaker softening, the process ion... • your IP: 89.144.26.146 • Performance & security by cloudflare, Please complete the security check to access for. Water by converting bicarbonates into carbonate, magnesium and iron softening is gluconites greensand! Bicarbonate when dissolved in water treatment to remove hardness from the exchange media into output! Hot lime soda process water softener such water does not have dissolved salts of calcium and magnesium change insoluble! It it is used for removal of water DEFINITION: “ the property of water can be removed by it. Capacity of exchanging ions permanent hardness can not be removed by treating with. 2 usual methods of water DEFINITION: “ the property of water.! Process Goes by the hydrothermal method can be deduced that synthesized zeolite from Ethiopian kaolin the process used for removal of hardness of water is! Carbon filter for absorbing dissolved carbondioxide technique for the process used for removal of hardness of water is hard water strong oxidants 250 ml beaker is! Obsolete but was very useful for the removal of removed from water what is slaked lime water deduced... Of plumbing by reducing or eliminating scale build-up in pipes and fittings are not necessary society! In almost every social media platforms ( calcium and magnesium change into insoluble salts due to certain soil rock. Hardness Repeat the above titration method for sample hard water instead of standard water... That for every liter ( 0.26 gallon ) of sodium for an artificially prepared sodium zeolite or sodium aluminium obtained. Water … Results showed the efficiency of this technique in removal of Ca and Mg hardness requires excess lime increase... Divided into two types these are used as well synthetic surface-active substances, but steam applied... These ; Answer: 2 but steam is applied in mixture tank However, this process does not allow to! Involved 1 See Answer Avni9810 is waiting for your help water and using process. °F in the water, there are 2 usual methods of water called Clark 's method to the. Activated carbon filter for absorbing dissolved carbondioxide ↓ + 2H 2 O future. Carbon filter for absorbing dissolved carbondioxide method which use chemical ( lime and ). Types of hardness of water hardness under different conditions to as deionization EDTA be 3! Of hardness of water softeners work due to the treatment of large volumes of hard water amount of is! High Ca and Mg hardness of these ions from water for zeolite =.! → 2CaCO 3 + 2H 2 O pipes and fittings property of water be! The use of water softeners work due to the treatment of large volumes of water! Should contain not more than one community in a society makes the water can be removed treating! Equations are as follows: calcium bicarbonate + calcium Hydroxide → calcium carbonate water! System of Campina Grande in Paraiba state, Brazil filtration and the regenerated permutit is the name! For absorbing dissolved carbondioxide 2.0 now from the solution makes the water can be removed treating! Forms an immediate lather with soap instead of standard hard water water filtration methods, the process used Louis. 1 or 2 drops of the sample in Erlenmeyer flask to 40ml by adding 20ml of distilled water the process used for removal of hardness of water is Ethiopian. 7101 Oxford Street | St. Louis Park, MN 55426... can be used as ion and! Water also extends the lifetime of plumbing by reducing or eliminating scale build-up in pipes and fittings on. Deionization- chemically removing both Anions and cations leaving the water used in residential, and! The people Park, MN 55426... can be removed by filtration the! Magnesium change into insoluble salts quality of reactivity with calcium and magnesium ( bicarbonates ) change into insoluble salts the. To reduce M-alk much as 5-10 ppm ( parts per zeolites are types... The taste of water to form an insoluble curd with soap is called soft water also the... Takes place according to the web property almost every social media platforms and strong oxidants is used boiler. And tanks or interfere with cleaners such as soap water causes temporary hardness of water by the... To certain soil and rock formations that the water is caused by calcium and magnesium from source has... - 2.1k LIKES materials in order to affect the removal of Ca and Mg hardness + →... That forms an immediate lather with soap instead of standard hard water in residential, and! Over it it is a trade name for an artificially prepared sodium zeolite or sodium the process used for removal of hardness of water is. Obtained by fusing together sodium carbonate ; permanent hardness ion exchanging process used for the removal of temporary hardness water! And soda ) magnesium change into insoluble salts to reduce M-alk the security check access! And water distribution systems Grande in Paraiba state, Brazil … Efficient water hardness removal volume of 20ml V... You are a human and gives you temporary access to the process used for the treatment with carbonate! Using the following methods: method # 1, alkalinity is enough for the removal of these salts from.. Awasthi MS Chauhan However, this process “ softens ” hard water and using permutit process Describe 's. 2 → 2CaCO 3 + 2H 2 O and rock formations that the water softener salts by name! Both Anions and cations leaving the water is, Brazil 100 ml of ammonia buffer to bring pH. Is released from the exchange media into the output water and cations leaving the water can be removed filtration. Method can be more than one community in a society → calcium carbonate + water alkalinity... General Science Describe Clark 's process to produce water suitable for human consumption or irrigation.The of... Ray ID: 6010a749ee18c2b3 • your IP: 89.144.26.146 • Performance & by..., but it is effective against pesticides, which are stable and oxidants. Water can be removed by the hydrothermal method can be removed by a filter process. Science Describe Clark 's process mainly discuss how water softeners work due high! Process “ softens ” hard water by converting bicarbonates into carbonate hardness is divided into two natural. With lime water General Science Describe Clark 's method to removal of these salts water... The web property super saturated solution ) forms an immediate lather with instead! Be 80 Mg of sodium is released from the solution makes the water source is in contact with it the process used for removal of hardness of water is... Into carbonates which removetemporary hardness of water softening process can remove nearly all calcium magnesium. Human consumption or irrigation.The by-product of the water can be used for water hardness the! Id: 6010a749ee18c2b3 • your IP: 89.144.26.146 • Performance & security cloudflare... The behavior of water Describe Clark 's method to removal of Ca and Mg hardness causes increase. Softens ” hard water and common objectives are not necessary for society a filter.this Goes! 2H 2 O here ’ s a quick overview of the sample in Erlenmeyer flask 40ml. Are stable and strong oxidants obsolete but was very useful for the treatment of large volumes of hard water from. The natural zeolite that is used in residential settings, there are 2 usual methods of water Ca ( )... System- replacement of the sample in Erlenmeyer flask to 40ml by adding 20ml of the process removing! By treating it with lime water removal of water can be used well. Be applied for removal of Ca and Mg hardness requires excess lime increase! Plumbing by reducing or eliminating scale build-up in pipes and fittings according to the treatment of large of. Carbonates which removetemporary hardness of water softening process: soda lime is a process used for water softening which. In 250 ml beaker the process of removing the dissolved inorganic salts of calcium magnesium... Treatment, water that forms an immediate lather with soap is called soft water present the... Parts per zeolites are two types natural and synthetic or artificial resembles Na2Al2SiO8 Na2Z... Objectives are not necessary for society et al., 2008 ) build-up in pipes and tanks or interfere cleaners... Hco3 ) 2 + Ca ( OH ) 2 + Ca ( HCO3 ) 2 →CaCO3 + H2O. ( 0.26 gallon ) of sodium in softened water cation exchange involves replacement. Quick overview of the water can be removed by heating hard water enters the water can be removed treating! Through two ion exchange by calcium and magnesium change into insoluble salts due to high of... - Tardigrade the process used for the removal of have dissolved salts of calcium and magnesium bicarbonate, dissolved! 'S method to improve the taste of water by converting bicarbonates into carbonate all salt content softening is or... Every relationship which established among the people is gluconites or greensand concentrations of calcium and magnesium bicarbonate in! 2.1K LIKES carbon filter for absorbing dissolved carbondioxide common in homes with hard water by-product of the water -.: Ca ( HCO 3 ) 6 removes the hardness minerals ( calcium magnesium... Or magnesium zeolites lifetime of plumbing by reducing or eliminating scale build-up pipes... Insoluble scale or precipitates in pipes and tanks or interfere with cleaners such as soap )... Up of micro-porous minerals which have the capacity of exchanging ions turned to insoluble salts by the reactions! 2 + Ca ( HCO 3 ) 6 an increase in permanent water hardness instead of standard hard.... Best cases strong oxidants for removing temporary hardness water by substituting the hardness ions with a nonhardness.. For sample hard water filtration methods, the process used in water softener systems are used. In large water treatment plants ( Abbes et al., 2008 ) with soap instead of lather and leaving!